History of Similar Initiatives

In the 1960s the foundation, then headed by founder C. Maxwell Stanley, sought to open dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union on issues of nuclear disarmament and bilateral relations at a time when our government was not always supportive of those endeavors.

On one occasion, when the foundation sought to bring together Soviets, Americans, and others at a conference on the United Nations, the State Department denied visas to the Soviets. At that point, the foundation decided that it would convene meetings outside the United States if that were necessary or helpful toward facilitating dialogue and exchange between countries and peoples in conflict. And the foundation has continued to do that.